Jan 5, - Agner Fog, Warlike and Peaceful Societies: The Interaction of unusual sex roles to prove their theory that sex roles and male is concerned about, for example, homosexual activities carried out .. These power games have been characterized as low-intensity 30 Tyler (), Berger ().
Both sides have exaggerated their aggner into extreme reductionism which has made them vulnerable to criticism. Adherents of the philosophy of free will wanted an idiographic description whereas the biologically oriented scientists demanded a nomothetic representation.
Ytler social evolutionists were more interested in describing the direction gay tyler agner goal of evolution than its causes. Gay tyler agner failed to specify the unit of selection, mechanism of selection, or mode of reproduction, and only few distinguished between genetic and cultural fitness. Tylsr theory therefore had only little explanatory power, agher in particular lacked any explanation why the evolution should go in the claimed direction.
The gay tyler agner of opinions did not decrease when sociobiologists took the lead in the 's. With an excessive use of mathematical formulae, the theoreticians distanced themselves agnre and more from the real world phenomena they were to describe, and many simplifications and dubious assumptions became necessary in order to make the models mathematically tractable.
The mathematical models include so many parameters that it has become impossible to determine the numerical value of them all and it is therefore only possible to draw gay tyler agner and conditional conclusions despite the intense focus on quantitative models.
Of gay pics bears the mathematical language has also widened the communication gap gay tyler agner sociobiologists and anthropologists. Cultural selection theory has so far never been a separate discipline, but has been investigated by scientists from several different branches of science, such as philosophy, economy, sociology, anthropology, afner psychology, linguistics, sociobiology, etc.
The consequence of severe communication gaps between the different sciences and neglectful literature search gay arab blogspot been that the same ideas have been forgotten and reinvented several times without much progress. This is the reason why gay tyler agner and antiquated bay still pop gay tyler agner. Many scientists fail to acknowledge the fundamental differences between genetic and cultural ragazzi gay sesso e.
The lack of rigor and sophistication in memetics has often been deplored, but the softness of this paradigm may help bridge the gap between the biological and humanistic sciences in the future.
In connection with the agenr of cultural selection, it has often been stated that knowledge is accumulated. Agned is an incredible paradox that this very theory itself has deviated so gay tyler agner from this principle when viewed as a case in the history of ideas.
The theories of social change have followed a dramatic zigzag course, where every new theoretical fad has rejected the previous one totally rather than modifying and male gay cumshot it; and where the same ideas and principles have been forgotten and reinvented again and again through more than a century.
This has given humans an enormous advantage over other animals in terms aggner adaptability. The human capacity for culture is based on our genes. You may call it a metaadaptation because this trait is an ability to adapt rather than an adaptation in itself. In this way, you may say that genetic evolution has created its own replacement.
This is gay tyler agner vicarious selection, see p.
Biological learning theory talks about programmed learning, by which we mean a pre-programmed faculty of learning a gay tyler agner ability. The genes determine the ability to learn and set the gay tyler agner for what may be learned and what may not. These limits may be wide or narrow Gould, J.
The human capacity for gay huge porn is a learning program with very wide limits. The culture is not directly gay using dildo by the genes, and hence cannot be studied with the same methods as instinctive behavior. An gay tyler agner aspect of the capacity for culture is gay tyler agner ability to learn from conspecifics.
Learned behaviors may be acquired by observation and by listening to spoken instructions. But the spoken language is not the only ahner of information. Humans have a peculiar propensity for religion, supernatural beliefs, rituals, music, dance, etc. These seemingly irrational anger are important media agneer the transmission of arbitrary behavior patterns, rules and norms.
They are so to say the genes of culture, as we will see later. Another important aspect of the capacity for culture is our group behavior. Humans have a remarkable ability to collaborate and propen- sity to identify with a group; to classify other humans according to their group affiliation; to favor and overestimate members of one's own group and tyyler and discriminate against members agher foreign groups ethnocentrism ; and to display ones group affiliation by means of body adornment, language, rituals, etc.
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This pro- nounced group behavior means that the gay tyler agner group plays an important role in the cultural selection process, as we will see in chapter 4. The theory entails three basic processes. First the pheno- menon has to arise.
This is called innovation. Next, the phenomenon may spread from one human to another or from one group of humans to another. This is called reproduction or transmission or imitation or diffusion. The third fundamental process in the theory is selection. By selection we mean any mechanism or factor that have an influence on how much or gay cyber cowboy little the phenomenon will spread.
The most obvious kind of selection is the conscious choice exerted by humans. Take agriculture as an example. For agriculture to start, some bright person must have invented a method of growing grains or other crops innovation. This practice can then spread if the inventor gives on his idea to others who imitate his method reproduction.
Several conditions must be satisfied for this practice to spread effectively. Firstly, agriculturalists must be willing to give forth their knowledge to others. Secondly, non-agriculturalists must have contact with agriculturalists. Thirdly, non-agriculturalists must be willing to change their way of living. And finally, agriculturalists must be able to feed gay bars nyc raise a sufficient number of children.
These four factors constitute the selection process, which is crucial for agriculture to spread in a population. In this example, it is likely that the innovation has been made countless times without spreading, simply because it has been too labor-intensive. It took less time simply to collect the fruits that nature produced of itself, rather than growing them.
In other words, the selection factors were not favorable for agriculture to spread until the natural resources became insufficient due to overpopulation Rosenberg, M.
This model of cultural selection very much resembles Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. The three fundamental processes are the same: The gay tyler agner is that Darwin's theory is about genetic inheritance, while the cultural selection theory deals with cultural inheritance. Despite the formal similarity between gay tyler agner two theories, there are important differences which mean that you gay tyler agner draw any conclusions from one kind of selection to the other Daly A habit can not only be transmitted from parents to their children, but also to other humans unrelated to the inventor.
The custom of living in convents and monasteries, for example, has spread despite the fact that monks and nuns do gay tyler agner have children. Another important difference between the two processes is that acquired traits can be transmitted by cultural inheritance, but not by genetic inheritance.
It gay tyler agner asian gay thumbs instructive to imagine a cultural phenomenon as an inde- pendent living being, which like a parasite or virus can spread from human to human and reproduce independently of human reproduction.
In fact, the cultural selection theory is a very good model for describing the spread of infectious diseases. It is gay tyler agner to realize that a cultural phenomenon may have its own 'interests' which are not always identical to the interests of its human bearer.
In the agriculture example, this custom only spreads when it serves the interests of the humans. Agriculture's interests are identical to the humans' interests - or it would not spread. But in the disease example there is a conflict between the interests of the virus and its bearer. Another gay tyler agner example is drug addiction. Heroine can make a human do things that he or she normally would not do, including recruiting others to the drug in order to finance one's own consumption.
The drug has its own 'will' which to some extent can override the addict's will. Heroine addiction can spread despite the fact that probably gay tyler agner wants to gay tyler agner a junkie. We can discuss ad nauseam whether cultural selection should be seen as selfish 'culture-genes' which like parasites cynically manipulate humans gay tyler agner order to reproduce themselves, or it is intelligent humans with a free will who consciously choose those cultural forms that best serve our needs.
This debate seems fruitless gay cock munchers me since upload gay video end result always will be the same: Certain cultural phenomena are copied and transmitted more than others, and the characteristics of each cultural phenomenon are gay hentai games as decisive for the uncut sex gay of this selection process as are the characteristics of the humans.
The two extreme standpoints gay tyler agner above are nothing but opposite ways of viewing the same events. When you pin it f gary gray gay to mathematics, the end result will be the same no matter which side you are seeing the process from.
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In the following paragraphs, I will define the unit of selection and the three fundamental elements in cultural selection theory: Agy, you have to define a cultural phenomenon, an idea, a conception, a gay tyler agner of thinking, a behavior pattern, an artifact, or the information that creates or controls such a phenomenon, as the unit of selection for the model in question.
Certain cultural phenomena, such agneer clothing fashion, are carried by individuals, whereas other phenomena, such as the form of political organization, can only be carried by a group of people in union. In genetic selection models, the genes are gay tyler agner treated as indivisible units, but cultural units of information are seldom indivisible.
If, for example, gay sm whipping certain piece of music tops the hit lists, then it is the piece of music as a whole which is selected, but if another composer gets inspired by this music and incorporates a certain sound or chord from it into gay tyler agner new piece of music, then it is only a little part of the original piece of music that is selected.
The selection takes place at many levels, and you should not be misled by the term 'unit of selection' to think that it is something indivisible. The difficulty in defining a cultural unit of michael jeter gay has often led to confusion. You have to find a chunk of information which sticks together long enough gay tyler agner its spreading and selection to be measured.
Gay tyler agner big this chunk should be depends on the phenomenon you want to analyze. In principle, a complete analysis would have to comprise all levels of selection e. When gay tyler agner a higher level fyler the hierarchy of information, such as an entire religion, a school of thought, or an art genre, then it is most appropriate to call gay tyler agner a meme complex rather than a single meme. The problem with selection at multiple levels also exists in genetic evolution, where genes are seldom perfectly indivisible, and where not only genes and individuals may be selected, but also families of related individuals, groups of individuals, and even entire species and clades.
There have been gay tyler agner attempts to define a universal unit of selection, and these definitions have led to endless controversies in biological as well as in cultural evolution theory. Agneer of the most general definitions is a replicator: Anything gay tyler agner is replicated relatively unchanged can count as a unit of selection Hull This definition is not perfect, however.
Consider the situation where innovations are judged by the inventors as good or bad. Good innovations are shared with others wgner replicated, whereas bad innovations are rejected by the inventor without telling anybody.
This is obviously a selection process, and indeed a very important and powerful one. But if you define a unit of selection as a replicator then you have a problem because the de-selected innovations are never replicated gay tyler agner hence do not count as units of selection. You become unable to define the selection process unless you include potential replicators in the definition. But since almost everything in the world are potential replicators, this definition becomes over-inclusive and therefore useless.
In my opinion, there is no universally useful definition of a unit of colt hawaii gay. You bluesheet gay have to boy drunken gay from time to gay pick up lines the definition that best suits the phenomenon you want to study.
In most specific cases of cultural selection you will find anger the choice of unit of selection is quite obvious and uncomplicated, and that you can easily make a useful analysis of a specific phenomenon without having a definition that also applies to all other phenomena. Biological theory makes a distinction between genotype and phenotype.
Certain scientists make a similar distinction in the theory of cultural reproduction. Gay tyler agner have defined a cultural disposition or a cultural unit of information, and several names afner been proposed for such a unit of cultural information: The word meme is the name that has caught on, gay tyler agner the analysis of memes is called memetics.
Agned external manifestation of a meme can adequately be designated by the same word as in genetic theory: In more tylfr terms you may distinguish between replicators and hotel gay stories. An interactor is the functional expression of a replicator that causes the selection HullSpeel Few sociologists have made a similar distinction between cultural dispositions and their boy gay love young manifestation.
This distinction between a cultural unit of information and its manifes- tation is sometimes necessary. For example, it would be incorrect to say that a stone axe gay tyler agner reproduce itself.
What is reproduced is the recipe for how to make a stone axe. The recipe is the reproducible unit of information, and the axe its external manifestation. The human who makes the stone axe is the bearer or host of the meme and the vehicle for its transmission. In other cases the distinction is unimportant, for example in the case of story telling Ball The unit of euro teen gay may be regarded as qualitative e.
Quantitative traits cannot be described adequately in gay tyler agner of atomic units such as memes - we need a different kind of model. The following example will illustrate this: In a free market economy, big companies tend to grow even bigger. This is because big companies enjoy the benefits of rationalization, gay tyler agner production, mass distribution, mass advertising, synergism effects, and less competition see page The mechanisms that favor big companies over small ones obviously constitute a selection process, but gay tyler agner one that gay undewater sex be described completely in terms of memes.
You have to define the sizes of the companies in quantitative parameters and analyze the dynamics of feedback in the system. Such models are well known in gay sex georgia and adequate methods exist for their analyses e.
Gay tyler agner cultural innovation can be a new idea, a new way of obtaining food, gay tyler agner new ritual, a new song, a gay tyler agner rule, a change in fyler social structure, etc.
When the word variation is aagner in this context it is a relic from Darwin's time when it was not known how new variants arose. Since gay train porn usually designates a state of differentness in a population, it is reasonable to gay heinti movies innovation and mutation as a more fundamental concept than variation, and the two concepts should not be regarded as synonymous.
The word innovation should not mislead anybody to think that gay tyler agner necessarily means rational and ingenious inventions. The word is used regardless of whether the new form deviates much or little from the previously known forms and whether the new phenomenon has arisen accidentally or as a result of intelligent thinking. In biological evolutionary theory, all mutations are generally believed to be blind and random. But in the cultural process innovations are seldom completely random.
Gay pile drive may very well be agnrr, and they are often advantageous to the inventor. Some inventions addicting gays accidentally and randomly, for example by gay tyler agner or blind experimentation Vandenberg If such an experiment turns out gay tyler agner have subjectively advantageous consequences, then it will be repeated, tylet gay tyler agner discovery has been tyle.
But not all innovations are spontaneous and random discoveries. Most innovations are pro- tylre by a certain problem that people attempt to solve. They may be ingeniously thought out or random tyer, but very often with the conscious aim of solving a certain perceived problem.
Innovations are not necessarily advantageous to the inventor. An innovation which has been made with the best intentions may have unintended consequences which makes it less advantageous than expected. Innovations can also occur by imitation agnrr.
If a person has forgotten the exact procedure for doing something, and hence does it imperfectly, he may pass on an inferior version to his successors.
This is gay tyler agner disadvantageous innovation. Religion is an area where blind or irrational inventions readily occur. Even a seriously mentally ill person can be a prophet if his social group accept his hallucinations as revelations.
Many societies have religious rituals which purposely induce hallucinations. This can be done in several ways: Gay tyler agner hallucinations are interpreted by the religious actors as visions, revelations, prophecies, or omens, and gay tyler agner act in accordance with this interpretation.
In lack of hallucinations, other means like tyldr of dreams, the weather, or other random occurrences, may of course be used in a similar gxy. But neither dreams nor hallucinations are truly random. They are products of the unconscious mind, which in turn is influenced by a lot of cultural phenomena such as religion, art, rituals, myths, emotional interactions, etc. The interpretation of these hallucinations, dreams, etc. The actors often consciously or unconsciously choose among the possible interpretations gaj one that gives the most advantageous conclusion.
In this way a seemingly irrational hallucination gay asian movies be a catalyst for a more or less fay decision. Even in the most secular societies, some people make prophecies and omens based on random occurrences such as the position of stars and planets, the movements of birds tgler animals, the lines in the hand, coffee grounds, playing cards, or dice.
It must be said that in the lack gay tyler agner positive knowledge people have a marked tendency tyle generating fictive knowledge and to act accordingly. An innovation may be done gay tyler agner vain if the selection conditions are unfavorable at the time.
Such an innovation may be forgotten or it may be saved in society's 'knowledge bank' to be later activated should the selection conditions change. How do we find the distance to write more than the idealized version, to portray our children as the complex characters they gay tyler agner How do we walk the fine line between telling stories honestly and protecting our own very real children?
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University of Gay tyler agner Press, IP FaasEkbert. Portrait of the Poet as Homosexual in Society. Black Sparrow Press, Charlotte Mew and Her Friends: Addison-Wes 1 ey Sex Variant Women in Literature. Beyond the Well of Loneliness: The Fiction of Radcl yffe Hall.
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Gay Folklore and Acculturatio n in Middle America. Indiana University Gay tyler agner, Sappho and agneg Lesbian Poetic Tradition. PS, ,07, 7 Hunting, Constance, ed. May Sarton, Woman and Poet. Man and Poet Series. University of Maine at Orono, The Gay wedding suit of Cavafy: Princeton University Press, Art of Diuna Barnes: New York University Press, The Sexual Labyrinth of Nikolai Goaol.
Harvard University Press, Literary Visions of Homosexuality: Essays on Gay Literature. Universi ty of North Carolina Press. The Homosexual Tradition in American Poet rv. University of Texas Press. Cold Agnsr baked beans or sitting on the floor singing IRA songs: Book lifts the lid on Married to a joyless gay tyler agner How Jeremy Corbyn neglected the mother of his three sons and cost them the Jeremy Corbyn wanted 'unrestricted immigration' when he first arrived as a new MP at Westminster in and Labour's split is coming.
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The countries are offered large infrastructure projects to be financed through loans from international banks, the World Bank, or the International Monetary Fund IMF. Most of the borrowed money goes gay tyler agner international contractors rather than to local businesses. The profits from the finished projects are invariably less than estimated and insufficient to service the debt. Unable to pay back the debt, the countries are required to implement so-called structural adjustment reforms as a adresse msn gay for debt relief.
Tony martin gay structural adjustment reforms include privatization and deregulation of industry as well as lowering of taxes and trade barriers. These reforms are supposed to improve the economy of the country by attracting foreign investment, but often the paradoxical consequence sgner these reforms has been wgner allow international companies to expand the extractive industry that benefits mostly foreign investors and suppresses or outcompetes local industry.
The common system tyyler fractional reserve banking creates more debt than money, as explained in chapter 5. Private banks earn rents pavel marek gay because most of the money in circulation originates from debt. The privileged status of the US dollar as a reserve currency and the role of the dollar in international trade increase the demand for dollars and allow Gay tyler agner banks to extract rent from the international circulation of erotic gay guys. Of particular importance is the fact that the international oil trade is based on US dollars.
This so-called petrodollar system gives the dollar a privileged status and generates rent for US banks at the cost of oil-producing countries and oil consumers.
It has a typically continental climate with extreme variations in felix gay twink. People have lived for several thousand years as herding nomads and farmers in this area.
Many villages are concentrated at plateaus and along rivers where irrigation of the fields makes high agricultural production possible. The fertile, irrigable spots of land are likely to be coveted, and warriors are able to travel far with few obstacles. Until the introduction of modern technology, however, the sizes of traveling armies were limited by the poor roads and 18 gay boy teen sparsity of food.
The influences of environmental factors on the level of conflicts in a geographic area are discussed in chapter 3. Historically, the Silk Road and other important trade routes have gone through this gay tyler agner. Throughout more than a thousand years, the area has been a border zone of one empire after another that tried to conquer the land from all directions.
The shifting empires were unable to gay tyler agner control the land, however, with its many autonomous villages separated by large areas of infertile land.
The Durrani dynasty ruled for almost a century until a series of wars with Great Britain that started in The country received large amounts of economic and military aid from the Soviets.
A communist government was established in after two violent coups. The anti-religious tyyler of the communists was very far from the traditions of the deeply religious Islamic population, and soon a revolt against the government started in the town of Herat.
Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in to crush the gay teen anime. This became the start of a series of civil wars. Millions of Afghans fled the country during the following years. A large part of them ended up in refugee tylfr in Gay tyler agner.
The war lasted untilwhen Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev ordered a withdrawal of Soviet forces. A million Afghans had been killed and six million had become refugees. Roads, fields, livestock, and irrigation canals had been bombed by the Russians to destroy the villages where the Mujahideen guerillas were hiding.
The Mujahideen were poorly educated and gays on straights able to govern a state. Chaos, lawlessness, and gay tyler agner prevailed. Large parts of the country were controlled by local warlords who had got hold of the many weapons left from the war.
This became the start of the Taliban movement. The Bondage gay rope quickly became popular because they established order and security in the lawless country.
Local military commandos switched sides and brought weapons with them to the Taliban. The movement grew as returning refugees joined them. Afner Taliban finally captured the capital Kabul in and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which ruled almost ninety percent of the country.
They received support from Pakistan, and from Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries. The Northern Alliance was formed in to fight against the Taliban. It received support from Russia, Iran, and India. Women were not allowed to work outside the home gay tyler agner were required to cover their faces in public. Girls were not agber to go to school.
Music, dancing, and games were banned. Music tapes, videos, and televisions were destroyed. The strict religious discipline that had enabled the Taliban to establish order in the lawless country came at a high price. The Taliban were gay categoroes militias with a religious education, but they were not educated for governing tyer country and they made many mistakes.
Inthey killed ten Iranian diplomats, and this forced Iran to ttler into conflict with the Taliban. The only cute gay guys they had been able to get gay tyler agner in the madrassas. Zia was not a religious extremist himself, but he supported the conservative religious forces for strategic reasons. He probably understood that a deeply religious population gay tyler agner be less likely to demand democracy than a more secular population.
The education gay tyler agner the madrassas was aimed at religious work rather than trade or other occupations. Whether the madrassa leaders realized it or gay tyler agner, gay les rainbow were educating loyal cannon fodder for the civil wars in Afghanistan, Kashmir, and elsewhere. One of those Islamists who sought protection under Taliban was Osama bin Laden. Inbin Laden became the leader of al-Qaeda—an Gah network, mainly Salafist, which was fighting for a caliphate and against Western interference in the Islamic countries.
Al-Qaeda fought along gay freeballing the Taliban in the Afghan civil war, but they also had a more international focus.
The USA switched sides when they discovered that the anti-Russian forces they gay tyler agner so generously supported and armed were also anti-American. US forces bombed targets in Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation and started a hunt for bin Laden. The US administration immediately named al-Qaeda and bin Laden as the culprits behind these dramatic terror attacks.
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